Welcome back. I was finishing up the end of the last one, and realized how broad this topic is. Here I hope to complete the various climates found in a diverse, livable world. You’ve probably seen these somewhere before, but here you’ll apply them to characters, events, and civilizations. Refer to the Basic Fantasy Ecology and Making Animals article for specifics on animal behaviors.
Grassland / Prairie
A simple area for your city. Rivers might pass through here, with some hills. Cities, especially in a fantasy setting, would be built upon hills as a natural defense. Rivers provide water and occasionally food, so cities are built near or along them for proximity purposes. Climates here are generally hot and dry, and whatever is built here should compensate. Tornadoes are a frequent natural disaster, and droughts as well.
Cities in mountains become more complicated. While a town built in valley makes sense using mountains as barriers, built on a mountain is different. Your city gains the huge uphill advantage, acquiring food and water becomes more difficult. How do your citizens get their basic needs? A simple way is to have a river running near or through a city. Also, terrace farming is a concept used widely by the Incas in the Andes mountains. Depending on how high up you are, the colder you will become. Mountains are generally windy as well, and rock slides can be devastating, along with avalanches.
A mix of sea and mountainous climates, and aptly named after the Mediterranean area. Port towns might be common, and a front for trade. Fog is also a dominant aspect, which makes everything a dull tone, and very wet. Humidity also becomes a factor as well. Although summers are hot, and winters are cold, this might be about as normal as you can get. Floods, and tidal waves should be yearly horrors for your citizens. Tsunamis are also good sources for terror.
A desert is a place that has little to no rainfall per year, so everything is dry. During the day it can become blistering hot, but at night temperature can drop below freezing. Your people should be able to react to this kind of sudden change each day. Scarce supplies of food and water generates a competitive society, and has a potential for interesting cultures. The desert nomad is also a widely used idea, the peoples who travel around endlessly. Sandstorms are common, and animals dealing with this environment can be fiercer than normal. Cities should be near oases, springs of fresh water and plants in deserts.
Forest / Jungle
Cities are rarely built in jungles, simply because of the amount of work involved cutting down trees and removing underbrush and various other stuff. Trees, when regrowing, are also quite intrusive with their roots. Cities built on the coast with forests around them make more sense, because the treeline doesn’t usually extend into the water. Lots of rainfall and humidity associated in this area, along with more wildlife than usual. Food can be acquired easily, and the large amounts of rainfall cause rivers to be common. River flooding can be a serious problem, especially if your city lies on or near a river.
Snow / Tundra / Ice
Living in constant cold changes people, and your citizens should be abnormal accordingly. Buildings here are usually short and compact, with thick walls for insulation. Snow falls are high, and depending on how much affects other things. Places have good winters and bad winters every year, but otherwise everything is straightforward. Food is scarcer, but water is plentiful. Blizzards are a frequent occurrence, and katabatic winds are caused by cold, heavy air moving down hill. These winds are extremely strong, reaching up to hurricane speeds. The worst are most common in cold climates.
Tropical climates are ones with wet seasons and dry seasons, and mild temperatures year round. Imagine places like Hawaii, the Caribbean, or Brazil. These places are generally closer to the ocean, nearer to the Equator. Cities here have the good fortune of plentiful food and water. Floods, especially near rivers, can occur, along with tidal waves.
The easiest way to plan this out is to look at a climate map of the world, and you can easily spot where the climates are located. While no place is perfect, and a few oddities add realism.